A. Furier (ed.), Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji, Poznań , p. 14 A. Lemieszonek, op. cit.; A. Myśliwy, op. cit., p. Kaukaz Południowy w polskiej polityce zagranicznej 2 5 7 C z. .. pozarządowych w regionie Kaukazu, [ w: ] Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji, A. F u r i e r (r e d.). Main themes of BST: 1. Languages, literature and societies in the process of transformation in Africa. 2. Research on the cultures, literature and languages ​​ of.

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Over the past three decades the discrimination hypothesis received a number of formal conceptualizations and empirical verifications, being disaggregated into three processes: In spite of the fact, that American priorities will remain relations with Anglo-Saxon partners so called Five-Eyes Partnershipthe analysts expect a shift of geographical emphasis in U.

This was only possible in the context of rapid and wide-ranging growth. Despite the above attempt of structuring and identifying the diverse uses of various terms related to immigrant self-employment, it should be noted that for the purpose of specific research topics the denotations of these terms may not reflect what has been concluded in Table 1 above.

At the beginning of the s, crossing the Polish border was simplified not only for foreign capital and goods, but also for people. Andrzej Furier Find more information about: Because of that, we can assume that we are justified in applying the model of mobility transition, particularly the part that describes migration from rural to urban areas, to interpret the phenomenon in Poland.

In a rather recent work Putz re-examines the interactive model looking from the perspective of cultural characteristics of immigrant groups. Historical contours of contemporary urban society. On the other hand, shortages of foreign currencies, which were most severe because of the need to finance import of goods for enterprises, were partly mitigated by the fact that the Polish state sold, on its own territory, its own goods for foreign currencies or for their equivalents issued by the Polish national banks.

The diversity of market structures and opportunities, as well as consumer demand and preferences in distinct economies, are hypothesized to be the notions based on which migrants are able to perform successful arbitrage across markets — an activity inaccessible for immobile persons. Polska gospodarka w latach What is more, in Subjects Globalization — Caucasus. In his discussion Wong rather suggests that explanatory frameworks be sought in the discrimination hypothesis.


The emergence of circular international labour migration as the most numerically significant form of mobility among Poles is undoubtedly a conspicuous demographic and sociological phenomenon. GDP fell for the second consecutive year and so it can already be stated that a long-term economic recession is setting in.

University of Chicago Press.

Economic Forum of Young Leaders

Small town and, particularly, rural residents employed in big cities came from households whose members usually had other and frequently diversified means of support, often largely uninfluenced by state planning and regulations. Less was spent on building new plants, unlike in the previous period.

University of Wisconsin Press. On interrelations between internal and international migration.

Kaukaz Południowy w polskiej polityce zagranicznej | Przemysław Adamczewski –

A reasoning stresses that the ethnic economy is a concept derived from the middleman minority theory, while the notion of an enclave arouse from the theory of labour market segmentation. Thus it should follow that immigrants, since they are risk-takers by nature, would on average have greater propensity to become self-employed, than natives.

This was not a sufficient condition to constitute a middleman minority, yet it was considered to be a necessary one. Soon, their experiences were common knowledge and people travelling with tourist groups followed in their footsteps.

Kaukaz w dobie globalizacji

From this point of view, it is an illegal form of international circular migration. Qualitative research seems most suitable especially when it comes to researching the individual psychological and personal motivations, preferences and other reasons for pursuing self-employment, but also the effects cultural factors have on the self-employment propensity of immigrants.

The latter category encompasses ties with co-ethnics, extent of social networks and government policies.

At the beginning of the s, migration from rural areas and small towns to cities, as a mass phenomenon, was finally replaced by circular movements from rural areas and small towns to cities and back; from the late s onwards, the latter were in turn increasingly supplanted by growing international circularity. By industrialisation I mean a fundamental and abrupt change in the economic structure — a transition from a predominantly agricultural economy to one where most of national product is generated by industry.


It globbalizacji yet to be determined. Identity policy in the self-proclaimed republics in east Ukraine Author s: This required different industrial foundations Barraclough Rudolph edsBridging States and Markets: What seems of particular importance is the necessity to take a closer look at the alarming phenomenon through the prism of values and, especially, our responsibility for the present and future generations.

Proportions of the foreign born and foreign stock categories are going to grow during the next decades. Incomplete migration is undertaken by people who are usually incapable of settling in modern economic centres of Poland or who live at their margins or of occupying a regular job in the mainstream economy; but kwukaz of those who know how to benefit from every occasion to make money in destination countries, even when they have to resign themselves to the situation of temporariness, undocumented status illegality and heightened risk.

Yet given the information on the Japanese minority as presented by Jiobu, some of the glovalizacji extensions of the enclave economy hypothesis would possibly manage to explain the phenomenon of Japanese success without the need for constructing a new theoretical framework see: New technologies were introduced, and more was invested in the production of consumer goods, including those requiring a high degree of processing.

A new form of mobility in Central and Eastern Europe. Finally, the most important fact is that participants in this type of circularity share a number of specific traits which seem to be the result of social and economic change in the post-war Poland. There is however plenty of evidence that the increase in short-term travel or, as dbie was officially called, non-migration travel was a long-term trend.

Afterwards, Poles travelled regularly and with increasing frequency to countries that were easily accessible to them. The Canadian Journal of Sociology 25 1: A new migratory space, in: Zachowania przystosowawcze w kryzysie.