Taxonomic Notes: The names Datura arborea and Brugmansia arborea have been misapplied to almost all other white-flowered Brugmansias for almost Brugmansia arborea: angel’s trumpet: The species Brugmansia arborea, golden angel’s trumpet (B. aurea), B. insignis, red angel’s trumpet (B. sanguinea). Brugmansia arborea, the Angel’s Trumpet occur naturally at high altitudes in Asia and South America. It is a small tree-like shrub, growing to feet tall.
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Brugmansia is a genus of seven abrorea of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae. They are woody trees or shrubs, with pendulous flowers, and have no spines on their fruit. Their large, fragrant flowers give them their common name of angel’s trumpetsa name sometimes used for the closely related genus Datura. Datura differ from Brugmansia in that they are herbaceous bushes, with erect rather than pendulous flowers – and most have spines on their fruit.
Like many ornamental plants, all parts of Brugmansia can be toxic.
They are therefore listed as Extinct in the Wild by the IUCN Red Listalthough they are popular ornamental plants and still exist wild outside their native range as introduced species. It is suspected that their extinction in the wild is due to the extinction of some animal which previously dispersed the seeds. Brugmansia are large shrubs or small trees, with semi-woody, often many-branched trunks.
They come in shades of white, yellow, pink, orange, green, or red. Most have a strong, pleasing fragrance that is most noticeable in the evening. Flowers may be single, double, or more. Brugmansia are native to tropical regions of South America, along the Andes from Venezuela to northern Chile, and also in south-eastern Brazil.
Most Brugmansia are fragrant in the evenings to attract pollinating moths. It will not flower until after it has reached this fork, and then only on new growth qrborea the fork. Cuttings taken from the lower vegetative region must also grow to a similar height before flowering, but cuttings from the upper flowering region will often flower at a very low height. It has been shown that these can sequester the plant’s tropane alkaloids and store them through the brugmanisa stage on to the adult butterfly, where they are then used as a defense mechanism, making themselves less palatable to vertebrate predators.
Linnaeus first classified these plants as part of Datura with his description of Datura arborea.
Then inC. Persoon transferred them into a separate genus, Brugmansianamed for Dutch naturalist Sebald Justinus Brugmans. Lockwood settled them as separate genera, where they have stayed unchallenged since. Currently, there are 7 recognized species: These species are then divided into two natural, genetically isolated groups.
Brugmansia section Sphaerocarpium the cold group includes the species arboreasanguineaand vulcanicola. Two of these species were challenged by Lockwood in his doctoral thesis.
This was later disproved by crossbreeding experiments done by the Preissels, published in In modern medicine, important alkaloids such as scopolaminehyoscyamineand atropinefound in Brugmansia and other related members of Solanaceae, have proven medical value for their spasmolyticanti-asthmaticanticholinergicnarcotic and anesthetic properties, although many of these alkaloids, or their equivalents, are now artificially synthesized.
Brugmansia have also traditionally been used in many South American indigenous cultures in medical preparations and as an entheogen in religious or spiritual ceremonies. Traditional external uses have included the treating of aches and pains, dermatitisorchitisarthritisrheumatismheadaches, infections, and as an anti-inflammatory.
They have been used internally much more rarely due to the inherent dangers of ingestion. Internal uses, in highly diluted preparations, and often as a portion of a larger mix, have included treatments for stomach and muscle ailments, as a decongestantto induce vomiting, to expel worms and parasites, and as a sedative.
Several South American cultures have used Brugmansia as a treatment for unruly children, that they might be admonished directly by their ancestors in the spirit world, and thereby become more compliant. Mixed with maize beer and tobacco leaves, it has been used to drug wives and slaves before they were buried alive with their dead lord. All parts of Brugmansia are potentially poisonous, with the seeds and leaves being especially dangerous.
The hallucinogenic effects of Brugmansia were described in the journal Pathology as “terrifying rather than pleasurable”. In in Florida, people were admitted to hospitals from ingesting Brugmansia leading one municipality to prohibit the purchase, sale, or cultivation of Brugmansia plants. They even vary with the seasons and the level of hydration, so it is nearly impossible to determine a safe level of alkaloid exposure.
Brugmansia are easily grown in a moist, fertile, well-drained soil, in sun to part shade, in frost-free climates. They begin to flower in mid to late spring in warm climates and continue into the fall autumnoften continuing as late as early winter in warm conditions.
In cool winters, outdoor plants need protection from frost, but the roots are hardier, and may resprout in late spring. The species from the higher elevations, in B. Several hybrids and numerous cultivars have been developed for use as ornamental plants.
There are cultivars producing double flowers, and some with variegated leaves. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other plants with the name “Angel’s trumpet”, see Angel’s trumpet. For other plants with the name Brugmansia, see Rhizanthes. Andes – Venezuela to Ecuador Brugmansia insignis Barb. Sweet Southeast Brazil Brugmansia versicolor Lagerh.
Ecuador Brugmansia vulcanicola A. Andes – Colombia to Ecuador. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture.
Angel’s Trumpets and Thorn Apples. Conserving biodiversity in East African forests: A study of the Eastern Arc Mountains. Archived from the original on Solanaceae Biology and Systematics. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved December 5, Forest Flora of Meghalaya Vol.
Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. Tropical and Subtropical Trees: Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae – Secondary Metabolites. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. A taxonomic revision of Brugmansia Solanaceae. Archived PDF from the original on Ethnobotany and History of Brugmansia. The Way of the Shaman. An Encyclopedia of Shamanism. The Rosen Publishing Group. Poisonous plants of California. University of California Press. The Botany and Chemistry of Hallucinogens.
Bulletin de la Societe Belge d’Ophtalmologie. International poisonous plants checklist: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. Arborew, Ecology, and Medicinal Applications. Archived PDF from the original on April 26, Retrieved December 20, Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 18 June Diphenidine Ephenidine Fluorolintane Methoxphenidine.
Brugmansia arborea – Useful Tropical Plants
Dextrallorphan Dextromethorphan Dextrorphan Racemethorphan Racemorphan. Apomorphine Aporphine Bromocriptine Cabergoline Lisuride Memantine Nuciferine Pergolide Phenethylamine Piribedil Pramipexole Ropinirole Rotigotine Salvinorin A Also indirect D 2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors cocainebrugmsnsiareleasing agents amphetaminemethamphetamineand precursors levodopa. Glaucine Isoaminile Noscapine Pukateine. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor modulators.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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